Posted by: Jaring | May 5, 2011

Fatigue Analysis pada Offshore Fixed Platform

Umumnya, sebuah offshore fixed platform terdiri dari topside sebagai penopang area operasi dari platform tersebut dan jaket yang menopang topside. Offshore fixed platform di-design untuk mampu menerima beban-beban sejak saat barang tersebut di-install, saat operasi dan saat kondisi ekstrem di mana environmental loading yang menerpa bangunan tersebut dalam kondisi maksimum. Selama masa operasi platform terdapat beberapa environmental loads yang menerpa terus-menerus, di antaranya angin dan gelombang. Beban-beban ini secara magnitude tidak akan menyebabkan bangunan yield, namun perulangan beban-beban tersebut dapat menyebabkan sambungan-sambungan di bangunan tersebut gagal secara fatigue.

Fatigue analysis pada sebuah offshore fixed platform adalah hal lazim yang dilakukan oleh para structural engineer. Output-nya, akan muncul masa layan atau fatigue service life dari masing-masing sambungan. Semuanya OK bila tidak ada fatigue service life yang kurang dari design masa layan banungan tersebut. Fatigue analysis dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa commercial software yang ada di pasaran, salah satunya adalah SACS. Panduan melakukan fatigue analysis menggunakan SACS dapat diunduh melalui link berikut. Dalam dokumen tersebut dipaparkan dengan detail setiap langkah melakukan fatigue analysis pada sebuah platform yang terdiri dari topside dan jaket 4 kaki.

Semoga bisa memberikan manfaat dan tambahan pengetahuan. Dipersilahkan untuk berdiskusi, memberikan saran, kritik maupun komentar lain.

Terimakasih.

-Singapore, 5 Mei 2011-

Posted by: Jaring | May 5, 2011

Introduction to Floating Structure

Bangunan-bangunan di laut yang dibuat untuk tujuan pengeboran minyak dan gas bumi memiliki beberapa tipe. Kategorisasi yang paling umum adalah bangunan yang menempel di dasar laut (fixed) dan bangunan-bangunan laut yang terapung. Seseorang akan mulai beralih untuk berpikir membuat bangunan yang terapung karena bangunan yang menempel di dasar laut sudah tidak mampu lagi dibangun atau tidak ekonomis. Penyebabnya adalah kedalaman laut yang semakin bertambah sehingga sudah tidak dimungkinkan lagi menyiapkan sebuah bangunan dengan tinggi lebih dari 500 meter.

Bulan November 2010 yang lalu saya berkesempatan berbagi ilmu di forum KuyaOG di Jakarta tentang bangunan terapung atau dalam English istilahnya Floating Structure. Materi presentasi dapat diunduh di link berikut. Materi presentasi juga telah di-share di website http://www.migas-indonesia.net dan milist Migas Indonesia. Dalam materi presentasi tersebut dibahas beberapa hal mengenai floating structure yang diawali dengan beberapa alasan kenapa kita musti beralih ke hal tersebut. Selain itu, dibahas mengenai jenis-jenis floating structures beserta karateristik dan tujuan penggunaannya. Semoga bisa memberikan manfaat. Ruang terbuka untuk diskusi tentu saja masih terus dibuka. Dipersilahkan untuk memberikan komentar, kritik maupun saran.

Terimakasih.

-Singapore, 5 Mei 2011-

Abstract

Oil and gas industry becomes one of the most favorite industries which many people are attracted to work on it. However, it has also the most dangerous places as it deals with the exploration and production of flammable things. This paper discusses mainly construction issues on deep marine condition as one of location where the petroleum is explored and produced, more particularly is on aspect of safety. Discussion will not be only limited on construction phase, but also during operation phase once an offshore infrastructure has been constructed and installed. The discussion is started with general introduction about deep marine condition, specifically for offshore oil and gas industry. Furthermore, hazards and risks on offshore industry are discussed in quite detail manner including all aspects related to these two main aspects.

Keywords: Oil and gas, offshore, hazards and risks

Introduction

Petroleum which supports most of human-daily-life on the earth could be found both on land and under an ocean. There are two common terms which describe the location of exploration and production of oil and gas, onshore and offshore. Onshore means a location on land where the petroleum is found and then be explored. When petroleum is found on an open sea then that location is called as an offshore area. Offshore industry is situated on sea which water depth could reach more than 2,000 meters. Later, this condition could be defined as the industry on deep marine condition.

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Abstract

This paper presents a discussion about several construction aspects involved during construction of the Gotthard tunnel. The Gotthard tunnel project is one of the largest international project scale which links German and Italy through the Alps mountainous. The discussion mainly is emphasized on the project risks which influence the project design and its preparation. With such big scale of project, USD 7 billion project budget, 2,000 workers on the peak schedule, 57 kilometers tunnel length, and built under one of the highest mountainous in the world which probably has the hardest rock layer, the Gotthard tunnel has many risks that could affect to the project design and project preparation itself.

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Abstract

This paper presents discussions about the key factors driving international markets and opportunities and challenges that a company in Singapore would face going abroad. The first topic will be elaborated in first half of this paper, while the second one will be discussed later. The international markets discussed in this paper are limited to the only construction industry and more specifically about construction of oil and gas infrastructure. Furthermore, company in Singapore sampled on the discussion of second topic is also working on offshore oil and gas industry.

Keywords: International Construction, Singapore, Oil and Gas Industry

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Posted by: Jaring | February 13, 2009

Earliest days of Petroleum Industry in Indonesia

Indonesia is in an equitorial location, spanning 15 degrees above and below the equator, with the Indian Ocean flowing into the archipelago from the west and the Pacific Ocean from the east. Indonesia is a very huge country, it has more than 17 thousand islands which make it as the world’s largest archipelagic state. Indonesia has population of around 240 million people. Its area is approximately 1.9 million square kilometres which streches 3,200 miles from east to west. In addition of oil and gas, coal, gold, nickel, copper, and many other natural resources are found in Indonesia.

History of petroleum in Indonesia began with the first drilling activity which was undertaken in East Java by a Dutch Plantation Manager. Indonesia’s petroleum history can be grouped into 4 (four) stages, those are The Pre-war phase, The War Years, The Early Post War Period and The Post – present period. This essay will focus on the earliest stage, however the next stages also will described briefly.

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